We all know Stephen Hawking. He was a popular cosmologist and theoretical physicist. Born in England on 8 January 1942, he was acclaimed for his contributions to gravitation, cosmology, information theory, thermodynamics, and quantum theory related to the black hole.

His book, ‘A Brief History of Time’ was bestselling. Some of his quotes are really motivating and just like his own life, his quotes can instantly inspire any individual. He has been awarded several times and has received various recognitions for his work. Listed below are some of the greatest discoveries of Hawking:

## Singularities

The theory of gravity introduced by Einstein talks about singularities. It refers to points where space-time seems to be infinitely curved. However, Einstein’s discovery did not clearly state if singularities were real or not. Years later, Stephen Hawking performed some tremendous work and applied it to the entire Universe. He researched on singularities to prove that gravitation produces singularities. Furthermore, he highlighted that the singularity predicted in Einstein’s theory was the big bang theory.

## Cosmic Inflation Theory

In 1980, Alan Guth introduced this theory. He stated that cosmic inflation in physical cosmology is a theory, according to which, the Universe expands significantly right after the big bang. Later, Stephen Hawking added more inputs to the discovery. He was the first to estimate quantum fluctuations and identify minute variations in the distribution of matter. He further highlighted the fact that at the time of inflations, there is a possibility of an increase in the spread of galaxies in the Universe.

## A Brief History of Time

This book by Hawking covers a variety of subjects in cosmology. The book was mentioned in the best-seller list of British Sunday Times and emerged as the bestselling book breaking the record of 237 weeks. Some of the topics included in the book are light cones, black holes, big bang, and more. At the time of Hawking’s demise, several tributes poured in to commemorate the contributions of the physicist and the learnings he left behind.

## Laws of Black Hole Mechanics

The different laws of black hole mechanics identified by Hawking are as follows:

- Hawking area theorem – the total surface area of the black hole does not diminish or reduce in size.
- Contradictory to what is mentioned in classical physicals, Hawking’s law states that black holes are hot.
- Hawking characterized the black holes by three parameters – the angular momentum, the charge, and the mass.
- Hawking radiation talks about the radiation emitted from black holes. This radiation continues till the black holes exhaust their energy and result in evaporation.

Hawking wrote an essay ‘Black Holes’ for which he received the renowned Gravity Research Foundation award in 1971.

Hawking made some important and relevant discoveries in his lifetime. He has left some interesting and revolutionary studies for the students of science. He was diagnosed with ALS at the age of 21, however, with his firm determination and resolve, he continued to battle and lived till the age of 76. His presence will be missed in the field of cosmology and physics.